Publishing Ethics

 | Post date: 2018/10/3 | 
Publication Ethics

Ethical standards for publication exist to ensure high-quality scientific publications, public trust in scientific findings, and that people receive credit for their work and ideas.
Johe is a Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) member and aims to adhere to its guidelines and core practices.


Article assessment

All manuscripts are subject to peer review and are expected to meet standards of academic excellence. If the Editor approves submissions, peer reviewers will consider submissions whose identities remain anonymous to the authors.
Our Research Integrity team will occasionally seek advice outside standard peer review. We may consult experts and the academic Editor before deciding on appropriate actions, including but not limited to recruiting reviewers with specific expertise, assessment by additional editors, and declining to consider a submission further.

Plagiarism
Authors must not use the words, figures, or ideas of others without attribution. All sources must be cited at the point they are used, and the reuse of wording must be limited and be attributed or quoted in the text.
Johe uses Crossref Similarity Check (iThenticate) to detect submissions that overlap with published and submitted manuscripts.
Manuscripts that are found to have been plagiarized from a manuscript by other authors, whether published or unpublished, will be rejected, and the authors may incur sanctions. Any published articles may need to be corrected or retracted.

Duplicate submission and redundant publication
Johe journals consider only original content, i.e., articles that have not been published, including in a language other than English. Articles based on content previously made public only on a preprint server, institutional repository, or in a thesis will be considered. In such cases, the preprint or thesis must be cited and discussed within the article.
Manuscripts submitted to Johe must not be submitted elsewhere while under consideration and must be withdrawn before being submitted elsewhere. Authors whose articles are found to have been simultaneously submitted elsewhere may incur


sanctions.
If authors have used their own published work, or work currently under review, as the basis for a submitted manuscript, they must cite the previous articles and indicate how their submitted manuscript differs from their previous work. Reusing the authors’ words outside the Methods should be attributed or quoted in the text. Reusing the authors’ figures or substantial amounts of wording may require permission from the copyright holder, and the authors are responsible for obtaining this.
Johe will consider extended versions of articles published at conferences provided this is declared in the cover letter, the previous version is cited and discussed, crucial new content and any necessary permissions are obtained.
Redundant publication, the inappropriate division of study outcomes into more than one article (also known as salami slicing), may result in rejection or a request to merge submitted manuscripts and the correction of published articles. Duplicate publication of the same, or a very similar, article may result in the retraction of the later article, and the authors may incur sanctions.


Citation manipulation

Authors whose submitted manuscripts are found to include citations whose primary purpose is to increase the number of citations to a given author’s work or articles published in a particular journal may incur sanctions.
Editors and reviewers must not ask authors to include references merely to increase citations to their own or an associate’s work, to the journal, or to another associated journal.

Fabrication and falsification
The authors of submitted manuscripts or published articles that are found to have fabricated or falsified the results, including the manipulation of images, may incur sanctions, and published articles may be retracted.


Authorship and acknowledgments
All listed authors must have made a significant scientific contribution to the research in the manuscript, approved its claims, and agreed to be an author. It is important to list everyone who made a significant scientific contribution. We refer to the ICMJE guidelines. Author contributions may be described at the end of the submission, optionally using roles defined by CRediT. Submitting authors must provide an ORCID, and we encourage all authors to provide one. Changes in authorship must be declared to the journal and agreed to by all authors. An author may change their name on a published article.
Anyone who contributed to the research or manuscript preparation, but is not an author, should be acknowledged with their permission.
Submissions by anyone other than one of the authors will not be considered.


Conflicts of interest
Conflicts of interest (COIs, also known as ‘competing interests’) occur when issues outside research could be reasonably perceived to affect the neutrality or objectivity of the work or its assessment. This can happen at any stage in the research cycle, including during the experimentation phase, while a manuscript is being written, or while turning a manuscript into a published article. 
If unsure, declare a potential interest or discuss it with the editorial office. Undeclared interests may incur sanctions. Submissions with undeclared conflicts that are later revealed may be rejected. Published articles may need to be re-assessed, have a corrigendum published, or retracted in severe cases. For more information on COIs, see the guidance from the ICMJE.
Conflicts of interest do not always stop work from being published or prevent someone from being involved in the review process. However, they must be declared. An explicit declaration of all possible conflicts – whether they had an influence–or not allows others to make informed decisions about the work and its review process.
If conflicts of interest are found after publication, this may be embarrassing for the authors, the Editor, and the journal. It may be necessary to publish a corrigendum or reassess the review process.

Conflicts include the following:
  • Financial — funding and other payments, goods, and services received or expected by the authors relating to the subject of the work or from an organization with interest in the outcome of the work
  • Affiliations — being employed by, on the advisory board for, or a member of an organization with an interest in the outcome of the work
  • Intellectual property — patents or trademarks owned by someone or their organization
  • Personal — friends, family, relationships, and other close personal connections
  • Ideology — beliefs or activism, for example, political or religious, relevant to the work
  • Academic — competitors or someone whose work is critiqued
Authors
Authors must declare all potential interests in a ‘Conflicts of interest’ section, explaining why the interest may be a conflict. If there are none, the authors should state, “The author(s) declare(s) that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.” Submitting authors are responsible for coauthors declaring their interests.
Authors must declare current or recent funding (including article processing charges) and other payments, goods, or services that might influence the work. Whether a conflict or not, all funding must be declared in the ‘Funding Statement.’
The involvement of anyone other than the authors who 1) has an interest in the outcome of the work; 2) is affiliated with an organization with such an interest; or 3) was employed or paid by a funder in the commissioning, conception, planning, design, conduct, or analysis of the work, the preparation or editing of the manuscript, or the decision to publish must be declared.
Declared conflicts of interest will be considered by the Editor and reviewers and included in the published article.

Editors and Reviewers
Editors and reviewers should decline to be involved with a submission when they
  • Have a recent publication or current submission with any author
  • Share or recently shared an affiliation with any author
  • Collaborate or recently collaborated with any author
  • Have a close personal connection to any author
  • Have a financial interest in the subject of the work
  • Feel unable to be objective
Reviewers must declare any remaining interests in the ‘Confidential’ section of the review form, which the Editor will consider.
Editors and reviewers must declare if they have previously discussed the manuscript with the authors.

Sanctions
If JOHE becomes aware of breaches of our publication ethics policies, the following sanctions may be applied :
•           Rejection of the manuscript and any other manuscripts submitted by the author(s).
•           Not allowing submission for 3 years.
•           Prohibition from acting as an editor or reviewer.
JOHE may apply additional sanctions for severe ethical violations.

Investigations
Suspected breaches of our publication ethics policies, either before or after publication, and concerns about research ethics, should be reported to our Research Integrity team.
Claimants will be kept anonymous if requested, though claimants may also wish to use an anonymous email service such as ProtonMail or TorGuard.
JOHE may ask the authors to provide the underlying data and images, consult editors, and contact institutions or employers to ask for an investigation or to raise concerns.

Corrections and retractions
When errors are identified in published articles, the publisher will consider the required action and may consult the editors and the authors’ institution(s).
Errors by the authors may be corrected by a corrigendum and errors by the publisher by an erratum.
If there are errors that significantly affect the conclusions or there is evidence of misconduct, this may require retraction or an expression of concern following the COPE Retraction Guidelines.
All authors will be asked to agree to the content of the notice.

 
Ethics issues

Clinical trials
We can only accept submissions featuring clinical trials if the following applies:
  • The trial is registered in a publicly-accessible database. This must have been done before the start of the trial or enrolment of the participants.  Examples of publicly-accessible databases include these sites by the National Institutes of Health and the World Health Organization. When submitting your work to johe, please include the name of your trial register and your clinical trial registration number.
You can demonstrate that you obtained clearance from your institutional ethics board for the trial.
Authorship
When listing the authors of your paper, we understand that it can be tempting to include everyone who has assisted you in your work. It’s also easy to forget someone who may have been involved at the very start of the process. Authorship issues vary but include:
  • Ghost authorship – exclusion of a contributor from the list of authors.
  • Gift/guest authorship – Inclusion of someone who hasn’t contributed to the paper or who has chosen not to be associated with the research.
  • Disputes over the order of the authors and the level of contribution that each has made to the paper.
These issues can overshadow your work, potentially leading to retractions, so it’s important to agree on authorship before submitting your paper.
At Johe, we subscribe to the authorship principles of the International Council of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). These state that for someone to be considered an author, they must have:
•           Made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
•           Drafted the work or revised it critically for important intellectual content; AND
•           Given final approval of the version to be published; AND
•           Agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

When authorship disputes arise, we always try to help the parties involved reach an agreement.  However, as it relates to the research stage, we or our editors cannot comment on the level of contribution by each author. Please refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) website for the processes we follow.

 

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