Volume 10, Issue 1 (Winter 2021)                   J Occup Health Epidemiol 2021, 10(1): 48-56 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Chukwukasi K W, Chikee A E, Ndudi O E, Nwabueze A E. Association between Lead Exposure and Haematological Parameters among Roadside and Organized Panel Beaters in Enugu Metropolis, Nigeria. J Occup Health Epidemiol 2021; 10 (1) :48-56
URL: http://johe.rums.ac.ir/article-1-421-en.html

Related article in
Google Scholar

1- MPH, FWACP in Public Health, Consultant Public Health Physician, Dept. of Community Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria , kassy2kny@yahoo.com
2- MPH, MSc, FWACP, FMCPH in Public Health, Consultant and Senior lecturer, Dept. of Community Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.
3- MPH, MSc, FWACP in Public Health, Consultant Public Health Physician, Dept. of Community Medicine, Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Abakaliki, Nigeria.
4- Professor of Public Health, Dept. of Community Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria; University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.
Article history
Received: 2021/02/1
Accepted: 2021/03/9
ePublished: 2021/06/21
Abstract:   (1565 Views)

Background: Haematotoxicity occurs following acute and chronic low dose exposures to lead. This study aimed to assess the association between occupational lead exposure and haematological parameters among roadside and organized panel beaters in Enugu Metropolis, Nigeria, 2018-19. 
Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional and analytical study of 428 roadside and organized panel beaters. A multistage sampling technique was used to select participants. Blood lead and haematological parameters were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer at 238.3nm wavelength and Mindray Auto Haematology Analyzer, respectively. Comparative analyses were performed using Chi-square, Man Whitney U-test, T-test, correlation, and statistical significance.
Results: All the haematological parameters on both sectors of panel beaters had mean values within the normal reference values. 7 (3.3%) on both sectors had abnormal haemoglobin and 4 (1.9%) and 3 (1.4%), respectively, had abnormal WBC. There was weak linear correlation among roadside and organized panel beaters of blood lead: Hb (r= -0.061, P= 0.371) and (r= 0.026, P= 0.709), RBC (r= -0.036, P= 0.596) and (r= -0.004, P= 0.956), and TWBC (r= -0.044, P= 0.524) and (r= 0.092, P= 0.180), respectively.
Conclusion: Haematological parameters on both sectors were found to be within the normal reference range. There was a non-significant weak linear correlation between blood lead and the parameters. Haematological investigations should be included as part of routine biomonitoring in occupational health practice as an indicator of lead exposure.

Full-Text [PDF 642 kb]   (585 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (521 Views)  

1. Okediran BS, Biobaku KT, Olaifa FH, Atata AJ. Haematological and antioxidant response to lead toxicity in male whisker rats. Ceylon Journal of Science 2017; 46(2):31-7. [DOI]
2. Gidlow DA. Lead toxicity. Occup Med (Lond) 2004; 54(2):76-81. [DOI] [PMID]
3. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology and Human Health Services. Lead – ToxFAQs TM. Washington, D.C., United States: Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry; 2007 Aug. [Report]
4. Riva MA, Lafranconi A, D’Orso MI, Cesana G. Lead poisoning: historical aspects of a paradigmatic “Occupational and environmental disease. Saf Health Work 2012; 3(1):11-6. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
5. Ukaejiofo EO, Thomas N, Ike SO. Haematological assessment of occupational exposure to lead handlers in Enugu urban, Enugu State, Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract 2009; 12(1):58-64. [PMID]
6. Kordas K, Ravenscroft J, Cao Y, McLean EV. Lead Exposure in Low and Middle-Income Countries: Perspectives and Lessons on Patterns, Injustices, Economics and Politices. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018; 15(11):2351. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
7. Fontana V, Baldi R, Franchini M, Gridelli P, Neri R, Palmieri F, et al. Adverse haematological outcome and environmental lead poisoning. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 2004; 14(2): 188-93. [DOI] [PMID]
8. Saliu A, Adebayo O, Kofoworola O, Babatunde O, Ismail A. Comparative assessment of blood lead levels of automobile technicians in organised and roadside garages in Lagos, Nigeria. J Environ Public Health 2015; 2015:976563. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
9. Lawal MA, Uzairu A, Sallau MS. A study of the Bioavailability and Impact of Habits on the Occupational Exposure of Electronic Repairers to Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), and Chromium (Cr) in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria. Int Res J Pure Appl Chem 2015; 5(3):20-9. [DOI]
10. Njoroge GK, Njagi EN, Orinda GO, Sekadde-Kigondu CB, Kayima JK. Environmental and occupational exposure to lead. East Afr Med J 2008; 85(6):284-91. [DOI] [PMID]
11. Flora G, Gupta D, Tiwari A. Toxicity of lead : A review with recent updates. Interdiscip Toxicol 2012; 5(2):47-58. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
12. Omotosho IO. Oxidative Stress Indices as Markers of Lead and Cadmium Exposure Toxicities in Auto Technicians in Ibadan, Nigeria. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2019; 2019:3030614. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
13. D’souza AP. Unorganized Sector: Role of an Enterpreneur and Challenges in Self Employment. International Journal of Scientic and Research Publications 2013; 3(6):1-5. [Article]
14. Hsieh NH, Chung SH, Chen SC, Chen WY, Cheng YH, Lin YJ, et al. Anaemia risk in relation to lead exposure in lead – related manufacturing. BMC Public Health 2017; 17(1):389. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
15. Kshirsagar M, Patil J, Patil A, Ghanwat G, Sontakke A, Ayachit RK. Effects of Lead on Haeme Biosynthesis and Heamatological Parameters in Battery Manufacturing Workers of Western Maharashtra India. Journal of Pharmaceutical, Chemical and Biological Sciences 2016; 3(4):477-87. [Article]
16. Ray RR. Haemotoxic Effects of Lead: A Review. Proc Zool Soc 2016; 69(2):161-72. [DOI]
17. Barman T, Kalahasthi R, Rajmohan HR. Effects of lead exposure on the status of platelets indices in workers involved in a lead – acid battery manufacturing plant. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2014; 24(6):629-33. [DOI] [PMID]
18. Prüss-üstün A, Fewtrell L, Landrigan PJ, Ayuso-mateos JL. Lead Exposure. In: Ezzati M, Lopez AD, Rodgers A, Murray CJL, editors. Comp Quantification of Health Risks: Global and Regional Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risk Factors. 1st ed. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2004. P.1495–542. [Book]
19. Ghasemi A, Nakhaei AA, Ghamseri AA, Salehi M, Kalani-Moghaddam F. Anaemia, Iron Deficiency Anaemia, and Lead Poisoning in Children with Opiod Toxicity: A Study in North East of Iran. Iran J Ped Hematol Oncol 2017; 7(2):90-7. [Article]
20. Hegazy AA, Zaher MM, Abd El-Hafez MA, Morsy AA, Saleh RA. Relation between anaemia and blood levels of lead, copper, zinc and iron among children. BMC Res Notes 2010; 3:133. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
21. Aniebue PN, Aguwa EN, Obi EI. Universal precautions: Awareness and practice of patent medicines vendors in Enugu metropolis, south east Nigeria. Niger Med J 2010;51(1):30-4. [Article]
22. Ofili AN, Usiholo EA, Oronsaye MO. Psychological morbidity, job satisfaction and intentions to quit among teachers in private secondary schools in Edo-State, Nigeria. Ann Afr Med 2009; 8(1):32-7. [DOI] [PMID]
23. Prüss-Üstün A, Mathers C, Corval án C, Woodward A. Introduction and methods: Assessing the environmental burden of disease at national and local levels. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2003. (World Health Organization, Environmental Burden of Disease Series, No. 1) [Book]
24. Minnesota Department of Health. Occupational Health and Safety Data, Occupational Lead Exposure in Adults. Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States: Minnesota Department of Health; 2018 Dec. [Report]
25. Addai-Mensah O, Gyamfi D, Duneeh RV, Danquah KO, Annani-Akollor ME, Boateng L, et al. Determination of Haematological Reference Ranges a Healthy Adult in Three Regions in Ghana. Biomed Res Int 2019; 2019:7467512. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
26. Al Khatib AJ, Taani HM, Al Asseiri M, Qasem AM, Kassab M, Laiche F. Haematological Changes in Prisoners with Higher Blood Levels Compared with General Population. Eur Sci J 2013; 9(36):342-34. [Article] [DOI]
27. Al-Ameen AM, Bashir FY. Effects of direct exposure to lead on some haematological parameters among battery repairs workers in Mosul. Annals of College of Medicine 2008; 34(1):58-63. [DOI]
28. Taha G.E.M, Afify M.M, Elmalah W.M, Gaber M.R. Impacts of Blood Lead Level on Trace Elements Status and Haematological Parameters in Anemic Children from Beni – Suef, Egypt. J Clin Toxicol 2018; 8(2):1000383. [DOI]
29. Fazli D, Malekirad AA, Mirzaee M, Dastjerdi HA, Mostafalou S, Karkhane A, et al. Study on the Link between Lead Exposure and Haematological, Psychological and Memorial Parameters in Automobile Repair Workers. Health 2014; 6(8):712-9. [DOI]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Occupational Health and Epidemiology

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb