Volume 6, Issue 1 (Winter 2017)                   J Occup Health Epidemiol 2017, 6(1): 17-24 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Manshoori A, Bidaki R, Esmaily H. Frequency of postpartum depression and its related factors in women referred to health centers in Rafsanjan, Iran, in 2015. J Occup Health Epidemiol 2017; 6 (1) :17-24
URL: http://johe.rums.ac.ir/article-1-163-en.html

Related article in
Google Scholar

1- Dept of. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran
2- Research Center of Addiction and Behavioral Sciences, Diabetes Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. , reza-bidaki111@yahoo.com
3- Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran
Article history
Received: 2016/04/13
Accepted: 2017/04/18
ePublished: 2017/07/9
Abstract:   (6706 Views)

Background: Pregnancy and labor is a natural process in human life which may be accompanied with challenges. Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common type of depression. Thus, the present study was conducted to determine the frequency of PPD and its possible risk factors in mothers referred to health centers in Rafsanjan, Iran, in 2015.

Materials and Methods: The present descriptive study was performed on 250 women who had given birth in the previous 2-6 months and had referred to health centers in Rafsanjan for various care services in 2015. The subjects were randomly selected and entered into the study. The data collection tools consisted of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and a demographic characteristics checklist. The collected data were analyzed using chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression.

Results: Among the participants, 129 (68.5%) mothers had PPD. Of the studied factors, unplanned pregnancy could predicted the incidence of PPD (P = 0.004). No difference was observed between mothers with and without PPD in terms of pregnancy order, delivery method, education level, occupation, history of substance abuse, and previous history of depression. 

Conclusions: The prevalence of PPD in Rafsanjan is high. Unplanned pregnancy had a significant relationship with PPD; thus, the related specialists and authorities must plan and take measures in this regard.

Full-Text [PDF 383 kb]   (1353 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (1240 Views)  

1. Lanes A, Kuk JL, Tamim H. Prevalence and characteristics of postpartum depression symptomatology among Canadian women: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health 2011; 11:302. [DOI] [PubMed]
2. Dennis CL, Heaman M, Vigod S. Epidemiology of postpartum depressive symptoms among Canadian women: regional and national results from a cross-sectional survey. Cana J Psychiatry 2012; 57(9):537-46. [DOI] [PubMed]
3. Ghanei Gheshlagh R, Mahmoodi H, Baghi V. A comparison of postpartum depression between fathers and mothers in Saqqez. Iranian Journal of Psychiatric Nursing 2015; 3(2):72-9. [Article]
4. Ghanei Gheshlagh R, Mahmoodi H, Baghi V. A comparison of postpartum depression between fathers and mothers in Saqqez. Iranian Journal of Psychiatric Nursing 2015; 3(2):72-9. [Article]
5. Werrett J, Clifford C. Validation of the Punjabi version of the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS). Int J Nurs Stud 2006; 43(2):227-36. [DOI] [PubMed]
6. Corton MM, Leveno K, Bloom S, Spong CY, Dashe J. Williams Obstetrics. 24th ed. New York City, United States: McGraw Hill Education; 2014. [Book]
7. Norouzi Z. Prediction of postpartum depression based on parental bonding, history of anxiety, and depression among women attended health care centers in Shiraz. Razi Journal of Medical Sciences 2015; 21(127):24-30. [Article]
8. Santos IS, Matijasevich A, Tavares BF, da Cruz Lima AC, Riegel RE, Lopes BC. Comparing validity of edinburgh scale and SRQ20 in screening for post-partum depression. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health 2007; 3:18. [DOI] [PubMed]
9. da Silva Moraes IG, Pinheiro RT, da Silva RA, Horta BL, Rosa Sousa PL, Faria AD. Prevalência da depressão pós-parto e fatores associados. Rev Saúde Pública 2006; 40(1):1-6. [Article]
10. Millis JB, Kornblith PR. Fragile beginnings: Identification and treatment of postpartum disorders. Health Soc Work 1992;17(3):192-9. [Article] [DOI]
11. Tannous L, Gigante LP, Fuchs SC, Busnello ED. Postnatal depression in Southern Brazil: prevalence and its demographic and socioeconomic determinants. BMC Psychiatry 2008; 8:1. [DOI] [PubMed]
12. Posmontier B. Sleep quality in women with and without postpartum depression. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2008; 37(6):722-37. [DOI] [PubMed]
13. Vesga-Lopez O, Blanco C, Keyes K, Olfson M, Grant BF, Hasin DS. Psychiatric disorders in pregnant and postpartum women in the United States. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2008; 65(7):805-15. [DOI] [PubMed]
14. McCoy SJ, Beal JM, Shipman SB, Payton ME, Watson GH. Risk factors for postpartum depression: a retrospective investigation at 4-weeks postnatal and a review of the literature. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2006; 106(4):193-8. [PubMed]
15. Dennis CL, Janssen PA, Singer J. Identifying women at risk for postpartum depression in the. immediate post partum period. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2004; 110(5):338-46. [DOI] [PubMed]
16. Ahmadi Kani Golzar A, GoliZadeh Z. Validation of edinburgh postpartum depression scale (EPDS) for screening postpartum depression in Iran. Iranian Journal of Psychiatric Nursing 2015; 3(3):1-10. [Article]
17. Nikpour M, Abedian Z, Mokhber N, Khaleghi Z, Banihosseini SZ, Ebrahimzadeh S. Relationship between delivery method and postpartum depression. Journal of Fundumantals of Mental Health 2012; 14(53):46-53. [Article]
18. Zanganeh M, Shamsalizadeh N, Kamravamanesh M, Rezaee M, Pormehr S. Postpartum depression and its relation to baby gender and unplanned pregnancy. Scientific Journal of Kurdestan University of Medical Sciences 2009; 14(2):65-71. [Article]
19. Rahmani F, Seyedfatemi N, Asadollahi M, Seyedrasooli A. Predisposing factors of postpartum depression. Iran Journal of Nursing 2011; 24(72):78-87. [Article]
20. Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. Kaplan and Sadock's synopsis of psychiatry: behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry. 10th ed. Philadelphia, United States: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2007. [Book]
21. Stewart DE, Robertson E, Dennis CL, Grace ShL, Wallington T. Postpartum depression: literature review of risk factors and interventions. Toronto, Canada: University Health Network Women's Health Program, Toronto Public Health; 2003. Available from: http://www.who.int/mental_health/prevention/suicide/lit_review_postpartum_depression.pdf [Report]
22. Abdollahi F, Sazlina SG, Zain AM, Zarghami M, Asghari Jafarabadi M, Lye MS. Postpartum depression and psycho-socio-demographic predictors. Asia Pac Psychiatry 2014; 6(4):425-34. [DOI] [PubMed]
23. Khorramirad A, Mousavi Lotfi M, Shoori Bidgoli A. Prevalence of postpartum depression and related factors in Qom. Pajoohandeh Journal 2010; 15(2):62-66. [Article]
24. Azimi Lolati H, Danesh MM, Hosseini SH, Khalilian A, Zarghami M. Postpartum depression in clients at health care centers in Sari. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology 2005; 11(1):31-42. [Article]
25. Hosseini, SH, Naghibi A, Khademlou M. Post partum depression and its relationship with some related factors. Journal of Babol University of Medical Sciences 2008; 10(2):76-81. [Article]
26. Ascaso Terren C, Garcia Esteve L, Navarro P, Aguado J, Ojuel J, Tarragona MJ. [Prevalence of postpartum depression in Spanish mothers: comparison of estimation by mean of the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale]. Med Clin 2003; 120(9):326-9. [PubMed]
27. Augusto A, Kumar R, Calheiros JM, Matos E, Figueiredo E. Post-natal depression in an urban area of Portugal: comparison of childbearing women and matched controls. Psychol Med 1996; 26(1):135-41. [PubMed]
28. Ballard CG, Davis R, Cullen PC, Mohan RN, Dean C. Prevalence of postnatal psychiatric morbidity in mothers and fathers. Br J Psychiatry 1994; 164(6):782-8. [PubMed]
29. Morrell CJ, Warner R, Slade P, Dixon S, Walters S, Paley G, et al. Psychological interventions for postnatal depression: cluster randomised trial and economic evaluation. The PoNDER trial. Health Technol Assess 2009; 13(30):1-153. [DOI] [PubMed]
30. Zelkowitz P, Saucier JF, Wang T, Katofsky L, Valenzuela M, Westreich R. Stability and change in depressive symptoms from pregnancy to two months postpartum in childbearing immigrant women. Arch Womens Ment Health 2008; 11(1):1-11. [DOI] [PubMed]
31. Carter FA, Frampton CM, Mulder RT. Cesarean section and postpartum depression: a review of the evidence examining the link. Psychosom Med 2006; 68(2):321-30. [DOI] [PubMed]
32. Ukpong DI, Owolabi AT. Postpartum emotional distress: a controlled study of Nigerian women after caesarean childbirth. J Obstet Gynaecol 2006; 26(2):127-9. [Article] [DOI]
33. Xie RH, Lei J, Wang S, Xie H, Walker M, Wen SW. Cesarean section and postpartum depression in a cohort of Chinese women with a high cesarean delivery rate. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2011; 20(12):1881-6. [DOI] [PubMed]
34. Hadizadeh Talasaz F, Bahri N, Tavakolizadeh J. Postpartum depression after vaginal delivery and emergency cesarean section (CS) in primigravida women. Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences 2005; 8(4):21-30. [Article]
35. Evans M, Donelle L, Hume-Loveland L. Social support and online postpartum depression discussion groups: a content analysis. Patient Educ Couns 2012; 87(3):405-10. [DOI] [PubMed]
36. Jafarpour M, Esfandyari M, Mokhtarsahi Sh, Hoseini FS. The effect of stressful life events on postpartum depression. Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences 2007; 10(4):320-31 [Article]
37. Hassan Zahraee R, Fahami F, yazdani M, Ahmadi Z, Bashardoost N. Supportive role of the midwife in preventing postpartum depression. The Journal of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences 2003; 7(1):19-24. [Article]
38. Richman JA, Raskin VD, Gaines C. Gender roles, social support, and postpartum depressive symptomatology. The benefits of caring. J Nerv Ment Dis 1991; 179(3):139-47. [PubMed]
39. Campbell SB, Cohn JF, Flanagan C, Popper S, Meyers T. Course and correlates of postpartum depression during the transition to parenthood. Dev Psychopathol 1992; 4(1):29-47. [Article] [DOI]
40. Thorpe KJ, Dragonas T, Golding J. The effects of psychosocial factors on the emotional well-being of women during pregnancy: A cross-cultural study of britain and greece. J Reprod Infant Psychol 1992; 10(4):191-204. [Article] [DOI]
41. Yoshida K, Marks MN, Kibe N, Kumar R, Nakano H, Tashiro N. Postnatal depression in Japanese women who have given birth in England. J Affect Disord 1997; 43(1):69-77. [PubMed]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Occupational Health and Epidemiology

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb