Volume 4, Issue 4 (Autumn 2015)                   JOHE 2015, 4(4): 260-265 | Back to browse issues page



DOI: 10.18869/acadpub.johe.4.4.260
PMCID: 0

XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Ghorashi Z. Sexually transmitted infections in Iran: A literature review. JOHE. 2015; 4 (4) :260-265
URL: http://johe.rums.ac.ir/article-1-164-en.html

Assistant Prof., Dept. of Midwifery, Faculty of Nursing Midwifery, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran. , zghorashi@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (269 Views)

Background: The global burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is noticeable and important. However, most STIs are curable and all of them are preventable. In this article, we reviewed and evaluated STI prevalence, current services, existing programs, and the challenges of control and management them in Iran.

Materials and Methods: The author searched literature published from 2005 to 2015 in PubMed, MEDLINE, Google, Embase, and Cochran library databases, and by UNAIDS, , the World Health Organization (WHO), and the Health Ministry of Iran. A variety of Medical Subject Headings ‎(MeSH) terms were used to access the literature.

Results: The present review revealed that the prevalence of contamination with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Iran has decreased dramatically in recent years. The prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis in the Iranian population did not exceed the estimated prevalence of these infections in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Although the condition of HIV epidemy is concentrated in Iran, its prevalence in the general population, based on literature, is extremely low. Centers of behavioral disease counseling, women centers, and positive clubs are three available centers in Iran helping in STI/AIDS prevalence reduction. The changing trend of HIV transmission pattern and lack of youth friendly services are the two main challenges of STI/AIDS prevention in Iran.

Conclusions: The overall prevalence of STIs and HIV/AIDS is low in Iran. However, neglecting youth sexual activity and premarital sexual relationships could result in the failure of the STIs and HIV/AIDS prevention programs.

Full-Text [PDF 334 kb]   (443 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (443 Views)  
Type of Study: Applicable | Subject: Special

References
1. Swiss. World Health Organization. Sexually transmitted infections (STls). World Health Organization. World Health Organization: Media centre, Fact sheets; 2016.
2. Swiss.World Health Organization. Sexually transmitted infections(STIs). World Health Organization: Media centre, Fact sheets; 2013.
3. Toskin I. Epidemiology of STIs: factors, numbers and surveillance. Paper presented at: Training Course in Sexual and Reproductive Health Research, Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2015 Jul 24; Geneva, Swiss.
4. Arababadi MK, Pourfathollah A, Jafarzadeh A, Hassanshahi G, Rezvani ME. Association of exon 9 but not intron 8 VDR polymorphisms with occult HBV infection in south-eastern Iranian patients. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010; 25(1):90-3.
5. Bani Aghil SS, Abbasi S, Arab M, Sayedin MS. The prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV in blood donors in Golestan province, (2006-2008). Medical Labratory Journal 2009; 3(2):1-5.
6. Keshvari M, Sharafi H, Alavian SM, Mehrabadi H, Zolfaghari S. Prevalence and trends of transfusion-transmitted infections among blood donors in Tehran, Iran from 2008 to 2013. Transfus Apher Sci 2015; 53(1):38-47.
7. Shoghli A, Nabavi SM, Alavian SM, Kolifarhood G, Goya MM, Namazi R, et al. Hepatitis B surface antigen prevalence in pregnant women: A cross-sectional survey in Iran. Int J Prev Med 2014; 5(Suppl 3):S213-8.
8. Afzali H, Momen Heravi M, Moravveji SA, Poorrahnama M. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen in pregnant women in beheshti hospital of Kashan, Isfahan. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2015; 17(7):e20598.
9. Hayatbakhsh MM, Darvish Moghaddam S, Zahedi MJ, Shafiei M, Khalily Zade M, Assare M. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B before marriage: a study on marriage candidates in the Southeast of Iran; is it worthy of consideration? Arch Iran Med 2015; 18(1):34-8.
10. Keyvani H, Sohrabi M, Zamani F, Poustchi H, Ashrafi H, Saeedian F, et al. A population based study on hepatitis B virus in northern iran, amol. Hepat Mon 2014; 14(8):e20540.
11. Vahdani P, Hosseini-Moghaddam SM, Family A, Moheb-Dezfouli R. Prevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis among homeless subjects older than fifteen years in Tehran. Arch Iran Med 2009; 12(5):483-7.
12. Mohammadali F, Pourfathollah AA. Changes in frequency of HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis infections among blood donors in Tehran province 2005 - 2011. Arch Iran Med 2014; 17(9):613-20.
13. Doosti A, Amini-Bavil-Olyaee S, Tajbakhsh E, Adeli A, Mahboudi F. Prevalence of viral hepatitis and molecular analysis of HBV among voluntary blood donors in west Iran. New Microbiol 2009; 32(2):193-8.
14. Hashemi FB, Pourakbari B, Yazdi JZ. Frequency of chlamydia trachomatis in women with cervicitis in Tehran, Iran. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2009; 2009:67014.
15. Ghazvini K, Ahmadnia H, Ghanaat J. Frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis among male patients with urethritis in northeast of Iran detected by polymerase chain reaction. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2012; 23(2):316-20.
16. Bakhtiari A, Firoozjahi A. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women attending health centres in Babol: prevalence and risk factors. East Mediterr Health J 2007; 13(5):1124-31.
17. Chamani-Tabriz L TM, Akhondi MM, Mosavi-Jarrahi A, Zeraati H, Ghasemi J, Asgari S, Kokab A, Eley AR. Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence in Iranian women attending obstetrics and gynaecology clinics. Pak J Biol Sci 2007; 10(24):4490-4.
18. Ghanaat J, Afshari JT, Ghazvini K, Malvandi M. Prevalence of genital Chlamydia in Iranian males with urethritis attending clinics in Mashhad. East Mediterr Health J 2008; 14(6):1333-7.
19. Kassaian N, Ataei B, Yaran M, Babak A, Shoaei P, Ataie M. HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in women with illegal social behavior in Isfahan, Iran. Adv Biomed Res 2012; 1:5.
20. Yeganeh O, Jeddi-Tehrani M, Yaghmaie F, Kamali K, Heidari-Vala H, Zeraati H, et al. A survey on the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium infections in symptomatic and asymptomatic men referring to urology clinic of labbafinejad hospital, tehran, iran. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2013; 15(4):340-4.
21. Afrakhteh M, Beyhaghi H, Moradi A, Hosseini SJ, Mahdavi A, Giti S, et al. Sexually transmitted infections in Tehran. J Family Reprod Health 2008; 2(3):123-8.
22. Haghighi Hasanabad M, Mohammadzadeh M, Bahador A, Fazel N, Rakhshani H, Majnooni A. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium in pregnant women of Sabzevar-Iran. Iran J Microbiol 2011; 3(3):123-8.
23. Swiss.World Health Organization. Prevalence and incidence of selected sexually transmitted infections Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, syphilis and Trichomonas vaginalis Methods and results used by WHO to generate 2005 estimates. Geneve: World Health Organization; 2011. Available from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/44735/1/9789241502450_eng.pdf
24. Afrasiabi S, Moniri R, Samimi M, Khorshidi A, Mousavi SG. The prevalence of Endocervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection among young females in Kashan, Iran. Jundishapur J Microbiol 2015; 8(4):e15576.
25. Shahcheraghi F, Shafiei M, Valadkhani Z. Detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from vaginal swabs of Ewin, Rajaii shahr, Karaj and Varamin female prisoners by PCR and culture methods. Pak J Biol Sci 2010; 13(4):198-200.
26. Kazerooni PA, Motazedian N, Motamedifar M, Sayadi M, Sabet M, Lari MA, et al. The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Shiraz, South of Iran: by respondent-driven sampling. Int J STD AIDS 2014; 25(2):155-61.
27. Hassanzadeh P, Maradaneh J, Motamedifar M. Conventional agar-based culture method, and nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) of the cppB gene for detection of neisseria gonorrhea in pregnant women endocervical swab specimens. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2013; 15(3):207-11.
28. 28. Mohammadali F, Pourfathollah AA. Changes in frequency of HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis infections among blood donors in Tehran province 2005 - 2011. Arch Iran Med 2014; 17(9):613-20.
29. Khedmat H, Fallahian F, Abolghasemi H, Alavian SM, Hajibeigi B, Miri SM, et al. Seroepidemiologic study of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis infections in Iranian blood donors. Pak J Biol Sci 2007; 10(24):4461-6.
30. Navadeh S, Mirzazadeh A, Mousavi L, Haghdoost A, Fahimfar N, Sedaghat A. HIV, HSV2 and Syphilis prevalence in female sex workers in Kerman, South-East Iran; using respondent-driven sampling. Iran J Public Health 2012; 41(12):60-5.
31. Nokhodian Z, Yazdani M, Yaran M, Shoaei P, Mirian M, Ataei B, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of HIV, Syphilis, Hepatitis B and C among female prisoners in Isfahan, Iran. Hepat Mon 2012; 12(7):442-7.
32. Haghgoo SM, Joula H, Mohammadzadeh R, Sabour S, Yousefi R, Ghahramani G, et al. Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in the East Azerbaijan province, northwest of Iran. Jundishapur J Microbiol 2015; 8(8):e19766.
33. Murray CJ, Ortblad KF, Guinovart C, Lim SS, Wolock TM, Roberts DA, et al. Global, regional, and national incidence and mortality for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria during 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease study 2013. Lancet 2014; 384(9947):1005-70.
34. United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDSUNAIDS. Second Independent Evaluation of UNAIDS. Paper Presented at: 25th Meeting of the UNAIDS Programme Coordinating Board; 2009 December 8-10; Switzerland, Geneva. No.:UNAIDS/PCB(25)/09.CRP.18.
35. Malekinejad M, Mohraz M, Razani N, Akbari G, McFarland W, Khairandish P, et al. High HIV prevalence in a respondent-driven sampling survey of injection drug users in Tehran, Iran. AIDS Behav 2015; 19(3):440-9.
36. Khajehkazemi R, Osooli M, Sajadi L, Karamouzian M, Sedaghat A, Fahimfar N, et al. HIV prevalence and risk behaviours among people who inject drugs in Iran: the 2010 National Surveillance Survey. Sex Transm Infect 2013; 89(Suppl 3): iii29-32.
37. Iranian national center for AIDS prevention (NcoApco). statistics and information [Internet] 2017 Mar. Available from: http://aids.ir/Info
38. Haghdoost AA, Mostafavi E, Mirzazadeh A, Navadeh S, Feizzadeh A, Fahimfar N, et al. Modelling of HIV/AIDS in Iran up to 2014. J AIDS HIV Res 2011; 3(12):231-9.
39. WHO. Global Health Observatory country views. Iran (Islamic Republic of) statistics summary (2002 - present). Geneve: World Health Organization; 2016 Sep. Available from: http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.country.country-IRN?lang=en
40. Swiss. World Health Organization. Wourld health statistics 2015. Geneve: World Health Organization; 2015. Available from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/170250/1/9789240694439_eng.pdf?ua=1
41. Karamouzian M, Nasirian M, Sedaghat A, Haghdoost AA. HIV in Iran. Lancet 2014; 383(9922):1040.
42. Iranian national center for AIDS prevention (NcoApco). Center for Contagious Disease Management. positive clubs; [Internet] 2017 Mar. Available from: http://aids.behdasht.gov.ir/index.aspx?fkeyid=&siteid=328&pageid=50520.
43. Nourabadi GhR. Youth Empowerment on HIV/AIDS Prevention. Geneve: UNAIDS, Programme Coordinating Board; 2013 Dec. Available from: http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/en/media/unaids/contentassets/documents/pcb/2013/pcb33/agendaitems/presentations/Item9_Iran_YouthEmpowerment.pdf.
44. Noroozi M, Taleghani F, Merghati-khoei, ES, Tavakoli M, Gholami A. Premarital sexual relationships: Explanation of the actions and functions of family. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2014; 19(4):424-31.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
Write the security code in the box

© 2015 All Rights Reserved | Journal of Occupational Health and Epidemiology

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb