Volume 10, Issue 3 (Summer 2021)                   J Occup Health Epidemiol 2021, 10(3): 183-192 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Akhlaghi Pirposhteh E, Sheibani N, Beheshti A, Bakhshi N, Salehi Sahl Abadi A. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Occupational Stress among Workers of an Engineering Company in Iran during the Covid-19 Pandemic, 2021: A Cross-Sectional Study. J Occup Health Epidemiol 2021; 10 (3) :183-192
URL: http://johe.rums.ac.ir/article-1-445-en.html

Related article in
Google Scholar

1- PhD Student in Occupational Health Engineering, Dept. of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
2- MSc in Ergonomics, Dept. of Occupational Health, School of Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3- BSc in Occupational Health Engineering, Dept. of Occupational Health and Safety at Work Engineering, School of Public Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
4- MSc in Environmental Management (HSE), Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
5- Assistant Prof., Workplace Health Promotion Research Center, Dept. of Occupational Health and Safety at Work, School of Public Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , asalehi529@gmail.com
Article history
Received: 2021/07/10
Accepted: 2021/10/3
ePublished: 2021/12/1
Abstract:   (1862 Views)

Background: The present study aims to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and occupational stress among workers of a factory in Iran during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on all workers of an engineering company (140 participants). The tools used in the present study included the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) Questionnaire and the Body Map Questionnaire. The participants were asked to respond to the questions according to their physical and mental status after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. The data were analyzed using SPSS V25.0.
Results: The most frequently reported musculoskeletal issues were related to the back (61.4%) and neck (53.6%) areas, while the lowest prevalence was related to elbows (17.9%). A significant correlation was found between the final scores obtained from the PSS-14 and Body Map Questionnaires for the neck (P = 0.026) and shoulder (P = 0.009) areas. Besides, a significant correlation was found between the participants' gender and pain in the neck (P = 0.005) and shoulder (P = 0.048) areas. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between marital status and pain in the pelvis (P = 0.034) and leg (P = 0.007) areas as well as the thigh and knee (P = 0.017) areas.
Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected various aspects of mental and physical health in occupational environments and has contributed to an increase in musculoskeletal pain and occupational stress levels. Thus, the adoption of effective strategies and the use of a comprehensive stress management program are suggested to prevent musculoskeletal disorders in occupational environments.

Full-Text [PDF 469 kb]   (640 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (718 Views)  

1. Sarailoo M, Matin S, Vosoughi M, Dargahi A, Gholizadeh H, Damavandi MR, et al. Investigating the relationship between occupation and SARS-CoV2. Work 2021; 68(1):27-32. [DOI] [PMID]
2. Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature 2020; 579(7798):270-3. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
3. Wu F, Zhao S, Yu B, Chen YM, Wang W, Song ZG, et al. A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China. Nature 2020; 579(7798):265-9. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
4. Karami C, Normohammadi A, Dargahi A, Vosoughi M, Zandian H, Jeddi F, et al. Investigation of SARS-CoV-2 virus on nozzle surfaces of fuel supply stations in North West of Iran. Sci Total Environ 2021; 780:146641. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
5. Dargahi A, Jeddi F, Vosoughi M, Karami C, Hadisi A, Ahamad Mokhtari S, et al. Investigation of SARS CoV-2 virus in environmental surface. Environ Res 2021; 195:110765. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
6. Seddighi H. The Performance of the Iranian Red Crescent by launching Testing Centers for the Coronavirus Disease. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2020; 14(6):e45. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
7. Ratten V. Coronavirus (covid-19) and entrepreneurship: changing life and work landscape. J Small Bus Entrep 2020; 32(5):503-16. [DOI]
8. Kochhar R. Unemployment rose higher in three months of COVID-19 than it did in two years of the Great Recession. Washington, D.C., United States: Pew Research Center; 2020 Jun. [Report]
9. Raišienė AG, Rapuano V, Varkulevičiūtė K, Stachová K. Working from Home —Who Is Happy? A Survey of Lithuania’s Employees during the COVID-19 Quarantine Period. Sustain 2020; 12(13):5332. [DOI]
10. Byers D. Twitter employees can work from home forever, CEO says. [Internet]. 2020 May. Available from: https://www.nbcnews.com/tech/tech-news/twitter-employees-can-work-home-forever-ceo-says-n1205346
11. Conger K. Facebook Starts Planning for Permanent Remote Workers. 2020 May. Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/21/technology/facebook-remote-work-coronavirus.html
12. De' R, Pandey N, Pal A. Impact of digital surge during Covid-19 pandemic: A viewpoint on research and practice. Int J Inf Manage 2020; 55:102171. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
13. Heathfield SM. The Pros and Cons of a Flexible Work Schedule. 2020 Jan. Available from: https://www.thebalancecareers.com/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-flexible-work-schedules-1917964
14. Taylor S. Understanding and treating health anxiety: A cognitive-behavioral approach. Cogn Behav Pract 2004; 11(1):112-23. [DOI]
15. Mann S, Holdsworth L. The psychological impact of teleworking: stress, emotions and health. New Technol Work Employ 2003; 18(3):196-211. [DOI]
16. Majumdar P, Biswas A, Sahu S. COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown: cause of sleep disruption, depression, somatic pain, and increased screen exposure of office workers and students of India. Chronobiol Int 2020; 37(8):1191-200. [DOI] [PMID]
17. Seddighi H, Dollard MF, Salmani I. Psychosocial Safety Climate of Employees During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Iran: A Policy Analysis. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2020; 1-7. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
18. Wong EL, Ho KF, Wong SY, Cheung AW, Yeoh EK. Workplace safety and coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic: survey of employees. Bull World Health Organ 2020; doi:10.2471/BLT.20255893. [DOI]
19. Brooks SK, Webster RK, Smith LE, Woodland L, Wessely S, Greenberg N, et al. The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. Lancet 2020; 395(10227):912-20. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
20. Embriaco N, Papazian L, Kentish-Barnes N, Pochard F, Azoulay Elie. Burnout syndrome among critical care healthcare workers. Curr Opin Crit Care 2007; 13(5):482-8. [DOI] [PMID]
21. Dyrbye LN, Shanafelt TD, Johnson PO, Johnson LA, Satele D, West CP. A cross-sectional study exploring the relationship between burnout, absenteeism, and job performance among American nurses. BMC Nurs 2019; 18:57. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
22. Havnen A, Anyan F, Hjemdal O, Solem S, Gurigard Riksfjord M, Hagen K. Resilience Moderates Negative Outcome from Stress during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Moderated-Mediation Approach. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020; 17(18):6461. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
23. Choobineh A. The Methods of Posture Analyses in Job Ergonomics. Hamadan: Fanavaran; 2013.
24. Moussavi Najarkola SA. The effect of age on the prevalence of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (UEMSDS) in Qaem Shahr weaving factory, Iran. Payesh 2007; 6(2):109-17. [DOI]
25. Entzel P, Albers J, Welch L. Best practices for preventing musculoskeletal disorders in masonry: stakeholder perspectives. Appl Ergon 2007; 38(5):557-66. [DOI] [PMID]
26. Rahman NIA, Ismail S, Ali RM, Alattraqchi AG, Dali W, Umar BU, et al. Stress among first batch of MBBS students of Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia: when final professional examination is knocking the door. Int Med J 2015; 22(4):1-6.
27. Moretti A, Menna F, Aulicino M, Paoletta M, Liguori S, Iolascon G. Characterization of Home Working Population during COVID-19 Emergency: A Cross-Sectional Analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020; 17(17):6284. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
28. Pillastrini P, Mugnai R, Bertozzi L, Costi S, Curti S, Guccione A, et al. Effectiveness of an ergonomic intervention on work-related posture and low back pain in video display terminal operators: a 3 year cross-over trial. Appl Ergon 2010; 41(3):436-43. [DOI] [PMID]
29. Shariat A, Cardoso JR, Cleland JA, Danaee M, Ansari NN, Kargarfard M, et al. Prevalence rate of neck, shoulder and lower back pain in association with age, body mass index and gender among Malaysian office workers. Work 2018; 60(2):191-9. [DOI] [PMID]
30. Mozafari A, Vahedian M, Mohebi S, Najafi M. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in truck drivers and official workers. Acta Med Iran 2015; 53(7):432-8. [PMID]
31. Alavi SS, Abbasi M, Mehrdad R. Risk Factors for Upper Extremity Musculoskeletal Disorders among Office Workers in Qom Province, Iran. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2016; 18(10):e29518. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
32. Cohen S, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R. A global measure of perceived stress. J Health Soc Behav 1983; 24(4):385-96. [DOI] [PMID]
33. Maroufizadeh S, Foroudifard F, Navid B, Ezabadi Z, Sobati B, Omani-Samani R. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) in women experiencing infertility: A reliability and validity study. Middle East Fertil Soc J 2018; 23(4):456-9. [DOI]
34. Maroufizadeh S, Zareiyan A, Sigari N. Reliability and validity of Persian version of perceived stress scale (PSS-10) in adults with asthma. Arch Iran Med 2014; 17(5):361-5. [PMID]
35. Cohen S, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R. Perceived Stress Scale. J Health Soc Behav 1983; 24:285. [DOI]
36. Karami Matin B, Mehrabi Matin A, Ziaei M, Nazari Z, Yarmohammadi H, Gharagozlou F. Risk assessment of cumulative trauma disorders in Quarry and Stone Industries workers Kermanshah in 1392. J Ergon 2013; 1(2):28-35. [Article]
37. Kahraman T, Genç A, Göz E. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire: cross-cultural adaptation into Turkish assessing its psychometric properties. Disabil Rehabil 2016; 38(21):2153-60. [DOI] [PMID]
38. Kuorinka I, Jonsson B, Kilbom A, Vinterberg H, Biering-Sørensen F, Andersson G, et al. Standardised Nordic questionnaires for the analysis of musculoskeletal symptoms. Appl Ergon 1987; 18(3):233-7. [DOI] [PMID]
39. Kahraman T, Genç A, Göz E. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire: cross-cultural adaptation into Turkish assessing its psychometric properties. Disabil Rehabil 2016; 38(21):2153-60. [DOI] [PMID]
40. Toprak Celenay S, Karaaslan Y, Mete O, Ozer Kaya D. Coronaphobia, musculoskeletal pain, and sleep quality in stay-at home and continued-working persons during the 3-month Covid-19 pandemic lockdown in Turkey. Chronobiol Int 2020; 37(12):1778-85. [DOI] [PMID]
41. Jafari-Nodoushan AA, Bagheri G, Mosavi Nodoushan F. Effect of COVID-19 virus on Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders of Faculty Members of Yazd University. J Ergon 2020; 8(3):1-12. [DOI]
42. Disser NP, De Micheli AJ, Schonk MM, Konnaris MA, Piacentini AN, Edon DL, et al. Musculoskeletal Consequences of COVID-19. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2020; 102(14):1197-204. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
43. Akhlaghi Pirposhteh E, Karim A, Salehi Sahl Abadi A. Evaluation the Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders among the Medical Staff of Selected Hospitals of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in 2018. Safe Promot Inj Prev 2019; 7(2):69-77. [DOI]
44. Wang LQ, Zhang M, Liu GM, Nan SY, Li T, Xu L, et al. Psychological impact of coronavirus disease (2019) (COVID-19) epidemic on medical staff in different posts in China: A multicenter study. J Psychiatr Res 2020; 129:198-205. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
45. Ortega-Galán ÁM, Ruiz-Fernández MD, Lirola MJ, Ramos-Pichardo JD, Ibáñez-Masero O, Cabrera-Troya J, et al. Professional Quality of Life and Perceived Stress in Health Professionals before COVID-19 in Spain: Primary and Hospital Care. Healthcare 2020; 8(4):484. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
46. Talaee N, Varahram M, Jamaati H, Salimi A, Attarchi M, Kazempour Dizaji M, et al. Stress and burnout in health care workers during COVID-19 pandemic: validation of a questionnaire. Z Gesundh Wiss 2020; 1-6. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
47. Hall H. The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare workers' mental health. JAAPA 2020; 33(7):45-8. [DOI] [PMID]
48. Gholami A, Sadeghi Yarandi M, Ghasemi M, Sadeghi Yarandi M, Ghasemi Koozekonan A, Soltanzadeh A. Effect of coronavirus epidemic on job stress and mental workload: A longitudinal study in a chemical industry. Iran Occup Health J 2020; 17(COVID-19 2020):81-9. [Article]
49. Rahmani R, Sargazi V, Shirzaei Jalali M, Babamiri M. Relationship between COVID-19-caused Anxiety and Job Burnout among Hospital Staff: A Cross-sectional Study in the Southeast of Iran. J Occup Hyg Eng 2020; 7(4):61-9. [DOI]
50. Said RM, El-Shafei DA. Occupational stress, job satisfaction, and intent to leave: nurses working on front lines during COVID-19 pandemic in Zagazig City, Egypt. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021; 28(7):8791-801. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
51. Mukosolu O, Ibrahim F, Rampal L, Ibrahim N. Prevalence of Job Stress and Its Associated Factors among Universiti Putra Malaysia Staff. Malays J Med Health Sci 2015; 11(1):27-38. [Article]
52. Joseph SJ, Shoib S, Sg T, Bhandari SS. Psychological concerns and musculoskeletal pain amidst the COVID-19 lockdown. Open J Psychiatry Allied Sci 2020; 11(2):137-9. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
53. Rashidi MA, PiranAghl MR, Ahmadi O, Pournajaf A, Seififard M, Kazemi M, et al. Occupational Fatigue and Sleep Quality: A Comparison Between Nurses Working in Various Wards of Public Hospitals. J Adv Med Biomed Res 2020; 28(131):336-45. [DOI]
54. Xiao X, Zhu X, Fu S, Hu Y, Li X, Xiao J. Psychological impact of healthcare workers in China during COVID-19 pneumonia epidemic: A multi-center cross-sectional survey investigation. J Affect Disord 2020; 274:405-10. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
55. Beheshti M, Hajizadeh R, Khodaparast E, Shojaei R, Ranjbar E. The role of workload and job satisfaction in general health of industrial workers in Gonabad, Iran, in 2015. J Occu Health Epidemiol 2014; 3(1):17-25. [DOI]
56. Khademol-Hoseyni SM, Nouri JM, Khoshnevis MA, Ebadi A. Consequences of nursing procedures measurement on job satisfaction. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2013; 18(2):123-7. [PMID] [PMCID]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Occupational Health and Epidemiology

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb