Volume 7, Issue 3 (Summer 2018)                   JOHE 2018, 7(3): 132-138 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Honarvar Z, Amiri F. Comparing some screening values of Pap test and visual inspection with acetic acid in the diagnosis of precancerous cervical lesions (2016-2017) . JOHE. 2018; 7 (3) :132-138
URL: http://johe.rums.ac.ir/article-1-301-en.html
1- Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
2- Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kerman University of medical sciences, Kerman, Iran , amiri.f.986@gmail.com
Abstract:   (2956 Views)
Background: Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) is one of the several methods that can serve as an alternative to the Pap test for diagnosis of precancerous lesions in the cervix. This study aimed to compare the screening value of VIA and Pap test in such diagnosis.
Materials and Methods: The population of this descriptive study was 304 women who attended Afzalipour Hospital in Kerman, Iran, from March 2016 to March 2017 that enrolled in the study by the convenience sampling method. Pap test and VIA were performed and followed by colposcopy. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, logistic regression.
Results: The result of Pap test in 136 (44.74%), VIA in 200 (65.79%), and colposcopy in 98 (32.24%) patients was positive. The sensitivity and specificity of VIA was 100% and 34.7%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of Pap test was 50.0% and 55.3%, respectively. In 93.5% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN 1) cases and 100% of CIN 2 and CIN 3 cases, VIA results were true positive (P > 0.999), whereas in 44.2% of CIN 1 cases, 50% of CIN 2 cases, and 42.9% of CIN 3 cases, Pap test results were true positive (P = 0.923).
Conclusions: The sensitivity of VIA and Pap test was reflected VIA ability to identify all cases of the disease, but the specificity of VIA was found to be only 34.7%, which means that it will cause additional costs by imposing supplementary tests on healthy individuals (false-positives).

Full-Text [PDF 187 kb]   (857 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (703 Views)  
Short Report: Original Article | Subject: Epidemiology
Received: 2018/04/16 | Accepted: 2018/06/10 | ePublished: 2018/12/10

1. Zendehdel K. Population-basedc cancer registry, I.R oF IRAN. [Workshop]. Tehran: Iran Ministry of Health; 2015 Apr 29. Available from: http://www.hbi.ir/research/sabt-bimariha/pbcrwslides/PBCR_IRAN_HIstory_and_Progress.pdf
2. World Health Organization. 1 in 100 women in Europe will develop cervical cancer. Genevea: World Health Organization; 2013. Available from: http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/noncommunicable-diseases/cancer/news/news/2013/04/1-in-100-women-in-europe-will-develop-cervical-cancer.
3. Khodakarami N, Farzaneh F, Yavari P, Khayamzadeh M, Taheripanah R, Esmaeil Akbari M. The new guideline for cervical cancer screening in low risk Iranian women. The Iranian Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility 2014; 17(95):8-17.
4. Pasquale L, Giorgi Rossi P, Carozzi F, Pedretti C, Ruggeri C, Scalvinoni V, et al. Cervical cancer screening with HPV testing in the Valcamonica (Italy) screening programme. J Med Screen 2015; 22(1):38-48. [DOI] [PMID]
5. Berek JS. Berek & Novak's gynecology. 14th ed. Philadelphia, United States: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007.
6. Tork Zahrani S, Rastegari L, Khoda Karami N, Mohebbi P. Relationship between Quality of Life and Social Support in Women Treated for Cervical Cancer. Preventive Care in Nursing and Midwifery Journal Zanjan University of Medical Science 2012; 1(2):51-7. []
7. Hortlund M, Sundström K, Lamin H, Hjerpe A, Dillner J. Laboratory audit as part of the quality assessment of a primary HPV-screening program. J Clin Virol 2016; 75:33-6. [DOI] [PMID]
8. Fakour F, Atrkar Roshan Z, Shaef SP, Dalil Heyrati SF. Sensitivity and features of Visual Inspection of cervix with Acetic Acid (VIA), as a screening test for cervical cancer. Journal of Guilan University of Medical Sciences 2011; 20(79):49-55. [Article]
9. Gibbs RS, Danforth DN. Danforth’s obstetrics and gynecology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, United States: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2008.
10. World Health Organization. New guidelines for the screening and treatment of cervical cancer. Genevea: World Health Organization; 2018. Available from: http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/cancers/guidelines/en/
11. Ardahan M, Temel AB. Visual inspection with acetic acid in cervical cancer screening. Cancer Nurs 2011; 34(2):158-63. [DOI] [PMID]
12. Nahar KN, Nessa A, Shamim S, Nasrin B, Hossain F, Begum N. Role of VIA in cervical cancer screening in low-resource countries. Mymensingh Med J 2011; 20(3):528-35. [PMID]
13. Sankaranarayanan R, Wesley R, Somanathan T, Dhakad N, Shyamalakumary B, Amma NS, et al. Visual inspection of the uterine cervix after the application of acetic acid in the detection of cervical carcinoma and its precursors. Cancer 1998; 83(10):2150-6. [PMID]
14. Peirson L, Fitzpatrick-Lewis D, Ciliska D, Warren R. Screening for cervical cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Syst Rev 2013; 2:35. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
15. Kuramoto H, Sugimoto N, Iida M. Screening for cancer of the cervix with simultaneous pap smear and colposcopy. The efficacy of pap smear and colposcopy. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 2011; 32(1):73-6. [PMID]
16. Zhang Q, Zhao M, Cao D, Wei X, Wang L, Li Y, et al. Assessment of the effectiveness of HPV16/18 infection referred for colposcopy in cervical cancer screening in Northwest of China. J Med Virol 2018; 90(1):165-71. [DOI:10.1002/jmv.24902] [PMID] [PMCID]
17. Pirzadeh A, Mazaheri MA. The effect of education on women's practice based on the Health Belief Model about Pap Smear Test. Int J Prev Med 2012; 3(8):585-90. [PMID] [PMCID]
18. Ajenifuja KO, Gage JC, Adepiti AC, Wentzensen N, Eklund C, Reilly M, et al. A population-based study of Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA) for cervical screening in rural Nigeria. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2013; 23(3):507. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
19. Bhattacharyya AK, Nath JD, Deka H. Comparative study between pap smear and visual inspection with acetic acid (via) in screening of CIN and early cervical cancer. J Midlife Health 2015; 6(2):53-8. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
20. Consul S, Agrawal A, Sharma H, Bansal A, Gutch M, Jain N. Comparative study of effectiveness of Pap smear versus visual inspection with acetic acid and visual inspection with Lugol's iodine for mass screening of premalignant and malignant lesion of cervix. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol 2012; 33(3):161-5. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
21. Vedantham H, Silver MI, Kalpana B, Rekha C, Karuna BP, Vidyadhari K, et al. Determinants of VIA (Visual Inspection of the Cervix After Acetic Acid Application) Positivity in cervical cancer screening of women in a peri-urban area in Andhra Pradesh, India. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2010; 19(5):1373-80. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
22. Babazadeh M, Pourali L, Attaran N, Nikfarjam Z, Masoudi T, Salehi M. Demographic survey of 600 patients with gynecologic cancers in Mashhad, Iran in 1985-2012. The Iranian Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility 2016; 19(3):1-8. [Article] [Eprints]
23. Wright KO, Mohammed AS, Salisu-Olatunji O, Kuyinu YA. Cervical Ectropion and Intra-Uterine Contraceptive Device (IUCD): a five-year retrospective study of family planning clients of a tertiary health institution in Lagos Nigeria. BMC Res Notes 2014; 7:946. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
24. Goel A, Gandhi G, Batra S, Bhambhani S, Zutshi V, Sachdeva P. Visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid for cervical intraepithelial lesions. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2005; 88(1):25-30. [DOI] [PMID]
25. Longatto-Filho A, Naud P, Derchain SF, Roteli-Martins C, Tatti S, Hammes LS, et al. Performance characteristics of Pap test, VIA, VILI, HR-HPV testing, cervicography, and colposcopy in diagnosis of significant cervical pathology. Virchows Arch 2012; 460(6):577-85. [DOI] [PMID]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2022 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Occupational Health and Epidemiology

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb