Volume 9, Issue 2 (Spring 2020)                   JOHE 2020, 9(2): 91-97 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Mousavi S, Rajabi S, Shastfouladi K. Cognitive Inhibition and Working Memory in Obese and Normal Women. JOHE. 2020; 9 (2) :91-97
URL: http://johe.rums.ac.ir/article-1-394-en.html
1- Instructor, Dept. of Psychology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
2- Associate Prof., Dept. of Psychology, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, Iran , sooranrajabi@pgu.ac.ir
3- MSc in Clinical Psychology, Dept. of Psychology, University of Roodehen, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (138 Views)

Background: The increasing incidence of overweight or obesity is a significant health problem.  Hence, this study aims to investigate attention inhibition and memory function in obese and normal women.
Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted from 2017 to 2018 in Ahvaz. A sample of 200 women referred to sports clubs was selected by the convenience sampling method. The tools included the Stroop test and the Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS). The data were analyzed using SPSS (Version 23), the multivariate analysis of covariance (MANOVA), and the independent t-test.
Results: According to the results, the multivariate analysis of variance at the level of P<0.001 showed a significant difference between the mean scores of the obese and normal women. Also, there was a significant difference between the two groups in the portion of correct answers to the Stroop test (P<0.001). Findings indicated that obese women had a lower active memory level than normal ones (P<0.001).
Conclusion: In this study, the data analysis showed a higher body mass index in women to be associated with attention inhibition and memory function in the obese group. Therefore, the implementation of programs and the promotion of lifestyles that prevent obesity are considered protective factors.


Full-Text [PDF 280 kb]   (49 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (30 Views)  
Type of Study: original article | Subject: Epidemiology
Received: 2020/07/15 | Accepted: 2020/10/14 | ePublished: 2020/12/2

1. Morris MJ, Beilharz JE, Maniam J, Reichelt AC, Westbrook RF. Why is obesity such a problem in the 21st century? The intersection of palatable food, cues and reward pathways, stress, and cognition. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2015; 58:36-45. [DOI] [PMID]
2. Yuenyongchaiwat K. Effects of 10,000 steps a day on physical and mental health in overweight participants in a community setting: a preliminary study. Braz J Phys Ther 2016; 20(4):367-73. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
3. Aballay LR, Eynard AR, Díaz Mdel P, Navarro A, Muñoz SE. Overweight and obesity: a review of their relationship to metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and cancer in South America. Nutr Rev 2013; 71(3):168-79. [DOI] [PMID]
4. Mitchell AJ, Vancampfort D, Sweers K, van Winkel R, Yu W, De Hert M. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and metabolic abnormalities in schizophrenia and related disorders -- a systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophr Bull 2013; 39(2):306-18. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
5. García-Jiménez C, Gutiérrez-Salmerón M, Chocarro-Calvo A, García-Martinez JM, Castaño A, De la Vieja A. From obesity to diabetes and cancer: epidemiological links and role of therapies. Br J Cancer 2016; 114(7):716-22. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
6. Agrawal P, Gupta K, Mishra V, Agrawal S. Effects of sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits on body mass index change among adult women in India: findings from a follow-up study. Ecol Food Nutr 2013; 52(5):387-406. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
7. Kim G, Choi S, Lyu J. Body mass index and trajectories of cognitive decline among older Korean adults. Aging Ment Health 2020; 24(5):758-64. [DOI] [PMID]
8. Bischof GN, Park DC. Obesity and Aging: Consequences for Cognition, Brain Structure and Brain Function. Psychosom Med 2015; 77(6):697-709. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
9. Arvanitakis Z, Capuano AW, Bennett DA, Barnes LL. Body Mass Index and Decline in Cognitive Function in Older Black and White Persons. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2018; 73(2):198-203. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
10. Stillman CM, Weinstein AM, Marsland AL, Gianaros PJ, Erickson KI. Body–Brain Connections: The Effects of Obesity and Behavioral Interventions on Neurocognitive Aging. Front Aging Neurosci 2017; 9:115. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
11. Uranga RM, Keller JN. The Complex Interactions between Obesity, Metabolism and the Brain. Front Neurosci 2019; 13:513. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
12. Nota MHC, Vreeken D, Wiesmann M, Aarts EO, Hazebroek EJ, Kiliaan AJ. Obesity affects brain structure and function-rescue by bariatric surgery? Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2020; 108:646-57. [DOI] [PMID]
13. Wassenaar TM, Yaffe K, van der Werf YD, Sexton CE. Associations between modifiable risk factors and white matter of the aging brain: insights from diffusion tensor imaging studies. Neurobiol Aging 2019; 80:56-70. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
14. Alfaro FJ, Gavrieli A, Saade-Lemus P, Lioutas VA, Upadhyay J, Novak V. White matter microstructure and cognitive decline in metabolic syndrome: a review of diffusion tensor imaging. Metabolism 2018; 78:52-68. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
15. Lee SH, Seo J, Lee JM, Park H; ADNI. Differences in early and late mild cognitive impairment tractography using a diffusion tensor MRI. Neuroreport 2014; 25(17):1393-8. [DOI] [PMID]
16. Vidyanti AN, Hardhantyo M, Wiratama BS, Prodjohardjono A, Hu CJ. Obesity Is Less Frequently Associated with Cognitive Impairment in Elderly Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Nutrients 2020; 12(2):367. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
17. Olivo G, Gour S, Schiöth HB. Low neuroticism and cognitive performance are differently associated to overweight and obesity: A cross-sectional and longitudinal UK Biobank study. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2019; 101:167-74. [DOI] [PMID]
18. Gunstad J, Paul RH, Cohen RA, Tate DF, Spitznagel MB, Gordon E. Elevated body mass index is associated with executive dysfunction in otherwise healthy adults. Compr Psychiatry 2007; 48(1):57-61. [DOI] [PMID]
19. Val-Laillet D, Aarts E, Weber B, Ferrari M, Quaresima V, Stoeckel LE, et al. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity. Neuroimage Clin 2015; 8:1-31. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
20. Raji CA, Ho AJ, Parikshak NN, Becker JT, Lopez OL, Kuller LH, et al. Brain structure and obesity. Hum Brain Mapp 2010; 31(3):353-64. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
21. McCrimmon RJ, Ryan CM, Frier BM. Diabetes and cognitive dysfunction. Lancet 2012; 379(9833):2291-9. [DOI] [PMID]
22. Bolzenius JD, Laidlaw DH, Cabeen RP, Conturo TE, McMichael AR, Lane EM, et al. Brain structure and cognitive correlates of body mass index in healthy older adults. Behav Brain Res 2015; 278:342-7. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
23. Willette AA, Kapogiannis D. Does the brain shrink as the waist expands? Ageing Res Rev 2015; 20:86-97. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
24. Walther K, Birdsill AC, Glisky EL, Ryan L. Structural brain differences and cognitive functioning related to body mass index in older females. Hum Brain Mapp 2010; 31(7):1052-64. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
25. Cserjési R, Luminet O, Poncelet AS, Lénárd L. Altered executive function in obesity. Exploration of the role of affective states on cognitive abilities. Appetite 2009; 52(2):535-9. [DOI] [PMID]
26. Marsland AL, Gianaros PJ, Kuan DC, Sheu LK, Krajina K, Manuck SB. Brain morphology links systemic inflammation to cognitive function in midlife adults. Brain Behavior Immun 2015; 48:195-204. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
27. Gianaros PJ, Kuan DC, Marsland AL, Sheu LK, Hackman DA, Miller KG, et al. Community Socioeconomic Disadvantage in Midlife Relates to Cortical Morphology via Neuroendocrine and Cardiometabolic Pathways. Cereb Cortex 2017; 27(1):460-73. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
28. Delavar A. Research Method in education and psychology. Tehran: Virayesh Publication Institute; 2005. P. 57.
29. Schneider KL, Appelhans BM, Whited MC, Oleski J, Pagoto SL. Trait anxiety, but not trait anger, predisposes obese individuals to emotional eating. Appetite 2010; 55(3):701-6. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
30. Malek A, Hekmati I, Amiri S, Pirzadeh J, Gholizadeh H. The standardization of Victoria Stroop Color-Word Test among Iranian bilingual adolescents. Arch Iran Med 2013; 16(7):380-4. [PMID]
31. Alloway TP, Rajendran G, Archibald LM. Working memory in children with developmental disorders. J Learn Disabil 2009; 42(4):372-82. [DOI] [PMID]
32. Penney TB, Allan LG, Meck WH, Gibbon J. Memory mixing in duration bisection. In: Rosenbaum DA, Collyer CE, editors. Timing of behavior: Neural, psychological and computational perspectives. Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States: MIT Press; 1988. P.165-93
33. Alloway TP, Gathercole SE, Kirkwood H, Elliott J. Evaluating the validity of the Automated Working Memory Assessment. Educ Psychol (Lond) 2008; 28(7):725-34. [DOI]
34. Mohammadzadeh J, Mamy S, Faryadian N, Oreyzy H. Standardizing the Working-Memory Rating Scale (WMRS) Among 5-11 Year-Old Children in the City of Ilam. Advances in Cognitive Sciences 2014; 16(2):69-76 [Article]
35. Deckers K, Van Boxtel MPJ, Verhey FRJ, Köhler S. Obesity and Cognitive Decline in Adults: Effect of Methodological Choices and Confounding by Age in a Longitudinal Study. J Nutr Health Aging 2017; 21(5):546-53. [DOI] [PMID]
36. Demos KE, McCaffery JM, Thomas JG, Mailloux KA, Hare TA, Wing RR. Identifying the mechanisms through which behavioral weight-loss treatment improves food decision-making in obesity. Appetite 2017; 114:93-100. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
37. Vantieghem S, Bautmans I, Guchtenaere A, Tanghe A, Provyn S. Improved cognitive functioning in obese adolescents after a 30-week inpatient weight loss program. Pediatr Res 2018; 84(2):267-71. [DOI] [PMID]
38. 38. Gunstad J, Paul RH, Cohen RA, Tate DF, Spitznagel MB, Gordon E. Elevated body mass index is associated with executive dysfunction in otherwise healthy adults. Compr Psychiatry 2007; 48(1):57-61. [DOI] [PMID]
39. Maayan L, Hoogendoorn C, Sweat V, Convit A. Disinhibited eating in obese adolescents is associated with orbitofrontal volume reductions and executive dysfunction. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2011; 19(7):1382-7. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
40. Veronese N, Facchini S, Stubbs B, Luchini C, Solmi M, Manzato E, et al. Weight loss is associated with improvements in cognitive function among overweight and obese people: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2017; 72:87-94. [DOI] [PMID]
41. Favieri F, Forte G, Casagrande M. The Executive Functions in Overweight and Obesity: A Systematic Review of Neuropsychological Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Studies. Front Psychol 2019; 10:2126. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
42. Heyward FD, Gilliam D, Coleman MA, Gavin CF, Wang J, Kaas G, et al. Obesity Weighs down Memory through a Mechanism Involving the Neuroepigenetic Dysregulation of Sirt1. J Neurosci 2016; 36(4):1324-35. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
43. Farooq A, Gibson AM, J Reilly J, Gaoua N. The Association between Obesity and Cognitive Function in Otherwise Healthy Premenopausal Arab Women. J Obes 2018; 2018:1741962. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
44. Riggs NR, Huh J, Chou CP, Spruijt-Metz D, Pentz MA. Executive function and latent classes of childhood obesity risk. J Behav Med 2012; 35(6):642-50. [DOI] [PMID]
45. Reinert KR, Po'e EK, Barkin SL. The relationship between executive function and obesity in children and adolescents: a systematic literature review. J Obes 2013; 2013:820956. [DOI] [PMID] [PMCID]
46. Braverman ER. Younger Brain, Sharper Mind: A 6-Step Plan for Preserving and Improving Memory and Attention at Any Age from America's Brain Doctor. 2nd ed. Emmaus, Pennsylvania, United States: Rodale Books; 2013.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2021 All Rights Reserved | Journal of Occupational Health and Epidemiology

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb